On November 18, 1918 the People's Council by proclaiming independence of the Republic of Latvia as well declared temporary newly established state border. For the purposes of its protection on 7 November, 1919 Jānis Balodis, Latvian Army Commander-in-Chief, issued an order to establish border guarding posts and to form border guard units. From 15 November, 1919 the real border guarding was started. The activities of border guards were based on the internal border guarding provisional regulations of the People's Council, issued on 5 December, 1918.
On 8 November, 1920 the Border Guarding was renamed to the Border Guard Division and it was charged with border guarding.
On 2 February, 1922 the Cabinet decided to disembody the Border Guard Division and to assign border guarding functions to the Ministry of the Interior. On 10 March of the same year the newly established Border Police took over the border guarding functions from the Border Guard Division.
In 1935 the Cabinet adopted a Law on State Border Guarding. Within the Ministry of the Interior on 6 April, 1935 a separate military unit was created - the Border Guard Brigade, Ludvigs Bolšteins was appointed its Commander. Till the occupation of Latvia in 1940 the Border Guard Brigade headed by General Ludvigs Bolštein was developed and became a consolidated and well organized separate military unit with strong discipline.
On 3 October, 1940 A.Noviks, People's Commissar of Latvian SSR, signed an order on disbandment of the Border Guard Brigade and discharge of border guards from their positions. On 10 October, 1940 the Border Guard Brigade of the Republic of Latvia was liquidated.